Bone tissue regeneration is a complex process that proceeds along the well-established wound healing pathway of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Recently, tissue engineering efforts have focused on the application of biological and technological principles for the development of soft and hard tissue substitutes. Aim is directed towards boosting pathways of the healing process to restore form and function of tissue deficits. Continued development of synthetic scaffolds, cell therapies, and signaling biomolecules seeks to minimize the need for autografting. Despite being the current gold standard treatment, it is limited by donor sites' size and shape, as well as donor site morbidity. Since the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and additive manufacturing (AM) techniques (3D printing), bioengineering has expanded markedly while continuing to present innovative approaches to oral and craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. Prime examples include customizable, high-strength, load bearing, bioactive ceramic scaffolds. Porous macro- and micro-architecture along with the surface topography of 3D printed scaffolds favors osteoconduction and vascular in-growth, as well as the incorporation of stem and/or other osteoprogenitor cells and growth factors. This includes platelet concentrates (PCs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and some pharmacological agents, such as dipyridamole (DIPY), an adenosine A2Areceptor indirect agonist that enhances osteogenic and osteoinductive capacity, thus improving bone formation. This two-part review commences by presenting current biological and engineering principles of bone regeneration utilized to produce 3D-printed ceramic scaffolds with the goal to create a viable alternative to autografts for craniofacial skeleton reconstruction. Part II comprehensively examines recent preclinical data to elucidate the potential clinical translation of such 3D-printed ceramic scaffolds.
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