Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE) of the Craniofacial Skeleton, Part II: Translational Potential of 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Defect Repair

Blaire V. Slavin, Vasudev V. Nayak, Daniel Boczar, Edmara T.P. Bergamo, Benjamin R. Slavin, Lauren M. Yarholar, Andrea Torroni, Paulo G. Coelho, Lukasz Witek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have revolutionized the approach to bone tissue engineering for the repair of craniomaxillofacial skeletal defects. Ample research has been performed to gain a fundamental understanding of the optimal 3D-printed scaffold design and composition to facilitate appropriate bone formation and healing. Benchtop and preclinical, small animal model testing of 3D-printed bioactive ceramic scaffolds augmented with pharmacological/biological agents have yielded promising results given their potential combined osteogenic and osteoinductive capacity. However, other factors must be evaluated before newly developed constructs may be considered analogous alternatives to the "gold standard" autologous graft for defect repair. More specifically, the 3D-printed bioactive ceramic scaffold's long-term safety profile, biocompatibility, and resorption kinetics must be studied. The ultimate goal is to successfully regenerate bone that is comparable in volume, density, histologic composition, and mechanical strength to that of native bone. In vivo studies of these newly developed bone tissue engineering in translational animal models continue to make strides toward addressing regulatory and clinically relevant topics. These include the use of skeletally immature animal models to address the challenges posed by craniomaxillofacial defect repair in pediatric patients. This manuscript reviews the most recent preclinical animal studies seeking to assess 3D-printed ceramic scaffolds for improved repair of critical-sized craniofacial bony defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-267
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • Oroantral Fistula
  • maxillary sinus
  • surgical Flaps
  • wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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