Boosting scholastic test scores by willpower: The role of implementation intentions

Ute C. Bayer, Peter M. Gollwitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As both high self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997) and forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006) are known to improve goal attainment, it is suggested that implementation intentions geared at strengthening self-efficacy should be a very helpful self-regulation strategy to achieve high scholastic test scores. In Study 1, female participants had to perform a math test either with the goal intention of solving as many problems as possible or with an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention. In Study 2, male participants worked on an analytic reasoning test under either a mere achievement goal intention, an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention, or an additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intention. In both studies, participants with self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions outperformed the mere achievement goal intention participants. Moreover, Study 2 showed that additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intentions were not as effective as additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to research on both self-efficacy and implementation intentions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalSelf and Identity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Boosting scholastic test scores by willpower: The role of implementation intentions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this