The ability of Ras oncoproteins to cause malignant transformation requires their post-translational modifications by prenyl groups. Because K-Ras can be both farnesylated and geranylgeranylated it is not known whether both farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors are required for suppressing human tumor growth in whole animals. In this paper we report that oncogenic Ras processing, MAP kinase activation and growth in nude mice are inhibited by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 in H- and N-Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells; whereas in K(B)-Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells both FTI-276 and the geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-297 are required for inhibition. Furthermore, human lung A-549 and Calu-1 carcinoma cell lines were found to co-express H-, N- and K-Ras. In Calu-1 cells, the processing of H- and N-Ras is inhibited greatly by FTI-276 but only partially by GGTI-297 whereas K-Ras processing inhibition requires both FTI-276 and GGTI-297, In contrast, in A-549 cells the processing of H- and N-Ras is inhibited only by FTI-276 and K-Ras processing is resistant to co-treatment with FTI-276 and GGTI-297. Yet, the growth in nude mice of A-549 and Calu-1 xenografts, both of which express K-Ras mutations, is inhibited by FTI-276 (80% inhibition) and GGTI-297 (60%). Furthermore, FTI-276 inhibits tumor growth of NIH3T3 cells transformed by a form of oncogenic H-Ras that is exclusively geranylgeranylated and whose processing is resistant to this inhibitor. Taken together, the results demonstrate that both FTase and GGTase I inhibitors are required for inhibition of K-Ras processing but that each alone is sufficient to suppress human tumor growth in nude mice.
- Prenylation and antitumor efficacy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research