BSafe-360: An All-in-One Naturalistic Cycling Data Collection Tool

Suzana Duran Bernardes, Kaan Ozbay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The popularity of bicycles as a mode of transportation has been steadily increasing. However, concerns about cyclist safety persist due to a need for comprehensive data. This data scarcity hinders accurate assessment of bicycle safety and identification of factors that contribute to the occurrence and severity of bicycle collisions in urban environments. This paper presents the development of the BSafe-360, a novel multi-sensor device designed as a data acquisition system (DAS) for collecting naturalistic cycling data, which provides a high granularity of cyclist behavior and interactions with other road users. For the hardware component, the BSafe-360 utilizes a Raspberry Pi microcomputer, a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and receiver, two ultrasonic sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and a real-time clock (RTC), which are all housed within a customized bicycle phone case. To handle the software aspect, BSafe-360 has two Python scripts that manage data processing and storage in both local and online databases. To demonstrate the capabilities of the device, we conducted a proof of concept experiment, collecting data for seven hours. In addition to utilizing the BSafe-360, we included data from CCTV and weather information in the data analysis step for verifying the occurrence of critical events, ensuring comprehensive coverage of all relevant information. The combination of sensors within a single device enables the collection of crucial data for bicycle safety studies, including bicycle trajectory, lateral passing distance (LPD), and cyclist behavior. Our findings show that the BSafe-360 is a promising tool for collecting naturalistic cycling data, facilitating a deeper understanding of bicycle safety and improving it. By effectively improving bicycle safety, numerous benefits can be realized, including the potential to reduce bicycle injuries and fatalities to zero in the near future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6471
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • bicycle safety
  • data acquisition system
  • lateral passing distance
  • naturalistic cycling data
  • sensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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