Calligraphy of Nanoplasmonic Bioink-Based Multiplex Immunosensor for Precision Immune Monitoring and Modulation

Jiacheng He, Siqi Wu, Wu Chen, Albert Kim, Wen Yang, Chuanyu Wang, Zhengyang Gu, Jialiang Shen, Siyuan Dai, Weiqiang Chen, Pengyu Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immunomodulation therapies have attracted immense interest recently for the treatment of immune-related diseases, such as cancer and viral infections. This new wave of enthusiasm for immunomodulators, predominantly revolving around cytokines, has spurred emerging needs and opportunities for novel immune monitoring and diagnostic tools. Considering the highly dynamic immune status and limited window for therapeutic intervention, precise real-time detection of cytokines is critical to effectively monitor and manage the immune system and optimize the therapeutic outcome. The clinical success of such a rapid, sensitive, multiplex immunoanalytical platform further requires the system to have ease of integration and fabrication for sample sparing and large-scale production toward massive parallel analysis. In this article, we developed a nanoplasmonic bioink-based, label-free, multiplex immunosensor that can be readily “written” onto a glass substrate via one-step calligraphy patterning. This facile nanolithography technique allows programmable patterning of a minimum of 3 μL of nanoplasmonic bioink in 1 min and thus enables fabrication of a nanoplasmonic microarray immunosensor with 2 h simple incubation. The developed immunosensor was successfully applied for real-time, parallel detection of multiple cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)) in immunomodulated macrophage samples. This integrated platform synergistically incorporates the concepts of nanosynthesis, nanofabrication, and nanobiosensing, showing great potential in the scalable production of label-free multiplex immunosensing devices with superior analytical performance for clinical applications in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50047-50057
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number43
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023


  • cytokines
  • immunomodulation
  • localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)
  • microfluidics
  • multiplexed immunosensors
  • nanolithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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