Cardiac-gated en face doppler measurement of retinal blood flow using swept-source optical coherence tomography at 100,000 axial scans per second

Byung Kun Lee, Woojhon Choi, Jonathan J. Liu, Chen D. Lu, Joel S. Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Jay S. Duker, Nadia K. Waheed, James G. Fujimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE. To develop and demonstrate a cardiac gating method for repeatable in vivo measurement of total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in humans using en face Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) at commercially available imaging speeds. METHODS. A prototype swept-source OCT system operating at 100-kHz axial scan rate was developed and interfaced with a pulse oximeter. Using the plethysmogram measured from the earlobe, Doppler OCT imaging of a 1.5× 3 2-mm area at the optic disc at 1.8 volumes/s was synchronized to cardiac cycle to improve sampling of pulsatile blood flow. Postprocessing algorithms were developed to achieve fully automatic calculation of TRBF. We evaluated the repeatability of en face Doppler OCT measurement of TRBF in 10 healthy young subjects using three methods: measurement at 100 kHz with asynchronous acquisition, measurement at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition, and a control measurement using a 400-kHz instrument with asynchronous acquisition. RESULTS. The median intrasubject coefficients of variation (COV) of the three methods were 8.0%, 4.9%, and 6.1%, respectively. All three methods correlated well, without a significant bias. Mean TRBF measured at 100 kHz with cardiac-gated acquisition was 40.5 ± 8.2 μL/min, and the range was from 26.6 to 55.8 μL/min. CONCLUSIONS. Cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT can achieve smaller measurement variability than previously reported methods. Although further validation in older subjects and diseased subjects is required, precise measurement of TRBF using cardiac-gated en face Doppler OCT at commercially available imaging speeds should be feasible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2522-2530
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2015


  • Cardiac gating
  • Doppler OCT
  • En face OCT
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Retinal blood flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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