Caregiving stress and adjustment problems of Kenyan orphans raised by grandmothers

Paul Odhiambo Oburu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The present study compared levels of caregiving stress among 115 biological mothers and 134 grandmothers raising their orphaned grandchildren. The associations between parenting stress and adjustment difficulties exhibited by children raised by these two groups of caregivers were also assessed. Full-time caregiving grandmothers reported elevated levels of stress more than did the biological mothers. A significant negative association was found between child maladjustment and caregiving stress. Caregivers' experienced stress was linked to advanced age and extensive, new adoptive roles now occupied by grandmothers. There was no evidence suggesting that these orphaned children were less well adjusted when compared to children still living with their own birth parents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-210
Number of pages12
JournalInfant and Child Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2005


  • Adoptive grandmothers
  • Biological mothers
  • Caregiving stress
  • Child adjustment
  • Orphaned children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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