Carrier-gas assisted vapor deposition for highly tunable morphology of halide perovskite thin films

Catherine P. Clark, Bryan Voigt, Eray S. Aydil, Russell J. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We demonstrate carrier-gas assisted vapor deposition (CGAVD) as a promising synthesis technique for high-quality metal halide perovskite thin films. Wide tunability of film microstructure and morphology are accesible with CGAVD via the combination of several independently controllable experimental variables. Here, we examine in detail the material transport mechanisms in CGAVD and develop analytical expressions for deposition rates for the halide perovskite precursors MABr, MAI, SnBr2, and SnI2 as a function of experimentally tunable temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. The method is then applied to systematically control the growth of MASnBr3 thin films via co-deposition across a range of stoichiometries and morphologies. In varying source material temperature, carrier gas flow rate, dilution gas flow rate, substrate temperature, and chamber pressure, corresponding changes are realized in the degree of crystallinity, grain orientation, and average grain size (from ∼0.001 to >0.7 m2). Thin films of MASnI3 and MASnBr3 deposited using CGAVD show resistivities of 0.6 Ω cm and 7 × 104 Ω cm, respectively, broadly consistent with previous reports.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2447-2455
Number of pages9
JournalSustainable Energy and Fuels
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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