In recent decades, school discipline policies and practices in K-12 education resulting in school exclusion have garnered substantial attention and represent an important challenge with significant policy and equity implications. Given the central role that school exclusion plays in discipline policies and practices, it is important to critically assess the pathways, rates, and harms associated with school exclusion. This study provides a systematic review of the interdisciplinary literature on the relationship between school exclusion and students' short- and long-term educational and life outcomes. Although there are a handful of possible pathways, the most frequent pathway though which school discipline results in school exclusion are suspensions. The results of this systematic review indicate that school exclusion is not an efficacious response to student misbehavior given the short and long term correlates with negative student educational and life outcomes. There are several plausible mechanisms through which school exclusion may affect student outcomes but there is little empirical evidence on these mechanisms.
- Child development
- School discipline
- School exclusion
- Student outcomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science