Centering and symmetry breaking in confined contracting actomyosin networks

Niv Ierushalmi, Maya Malik-Garbi, Angelika Manhart, Enas Abu Shah, Bruce L. Goode, Alex Mogilner, Kinneret Keren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Centering and decentering of cellular components is essential for internal organization of cells and their ability to perform basic cellular functions such as division and motility. How cells achieve proper localization of their organelles is still not well-understood, especially in large cells such as oocytes. Here, we study actin-based positioning mechanisms in artificial cells with persistently contracting actomyosin networks, generated by encapsulating cytoplasmic Xenopus egg extracts into cell-sized ‘water-in-oil’ droplets. We observe size-dependent localization of the contraction center, with a symmetric configuration in larger cells and a polar one in smaller cells. Centering is achieved via a hydrodynamic mechanism based on Darcy friction between the contracting network and the surrounding cytoplasm. During symmetry breaking, transient attachments to the cell boundary drive the contraction center to a polar location. The centering mechanism is cell-cycle dependent and weakens considerably during interphase. Our findings demonstrate a robust, yet tunable, mechanism for subcellular localization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere55368
JournaleLife
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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    Ierushalmi, N., Malik-Garbi, M., Manhart, A., Shah, E. A., Goode, B. L., Mogilner, A., & Keren, K. (2020). Centering and symmetry breaking in confined contracting actomyosin networks. eLife, 9, [e55368]. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55368