This chapter begins with an account of the early developments in protein chemistry and supramolecular chemistry. We have attempted to summarize the seminal achievements in each of these vast fields, highlighting how one has informed the other over the past century. We focus on the central topic of molecular recognition and noncovalent interactions. Classic examples of molecular recognition in Nature (as evidenced by X-ray crystallography) and the corresponding motifs developed by supramolecular chemists are described. Synthetic scaffolds that mimic peptide and protein structures are also presented in the context of interaction inhibitors. By bringing together these illustrious examples we hope to encourage new collaborations between supramolecular chemists and biomedical scientists.