Polynya models can be divided into two categories: polynya flux models and general circulation polynya models. Flux models predict the location of the polynya edge by postulating mass and momentum balances at the polynya edge that are based on the dynamic equations for frazil and consolidated new ice. The general circulation approach uses comprehensive dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models to predict the ice concentration in a certain region and, from this, the evolution of the polynya, which is characterised as the oceanic area within which ice concentration is smaller than a given threshold (10%, say). In this chapter, we review the most recent literature on both polynya modelling approaches.
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