Characteristics of modern nonlinear loads and their influence on systems with distributed generation

Doron Shmilovitz, Jiwu Duan, Dariusz Czarkowski, Zivan Zabar, Serena Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nonlinear electronic loads may demonstrate unexpected reactions to variations in power system voltage. This effect of the electrical load may be very significant in distributed generation power systems containing relatively small generators. This paper reviews modern nonlinear electronic load current consumption mechanisms and provides typical current waveforms. Based on extensive measurements and field surveys, modified ZIP models have been developed to produce descriptive behaviour for a large class of nonlinear loads that account for cutoff voltages. Finally, an independent PC program was developed to analyse individual load equipment under varying voltage conditions based on the active and reactive powers at the rated voltage. The program also enables the study of combined loads (such as in a single residential or commercial building.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-240
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Technology and Policy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2007


  • Harmonics
  • Load estimation
  • Nonlinear load
  • Power qualtiy
  • Reactive power
  • Varying voltage
  • ZIP model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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