Chemical bonding and stability of multilayer graphene oxide layers

Cheng Gong, Suenne Kim, Si Zhou, Yike Hu, Muge Acik, Walt De Heer, Claire Berger, Angelo Bongiorno, Eliso Riedo, Yves Chabal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The chemistry of graphene oxide (GO) and its response to external stimuli such as temperature and light are not well understood and only approximately controlled. This understanding is however crucial to enable future applications of the material that typically are subject to environmental conditions. The nature of the initial GO is also highly dependent on the preparation and the form of the initial carbon material. Here, we consider both standard GO made from oxidizing graphite and layered GO made from oxidizing epitaxial graphene on SiC, and examine their evolution under different stimuli. The effect of the solvent on the thermal evolution of standard GO in vacuum is first investigated. In situ infrared absorption measurements clearly show that the nature of the last solvent in contact with GO prior to deposition on a substrate for vacuum annealing studies substantially affect the chemical evolution of the material as GO is reduced. Second, the stability of GO derived from epitaxial graphene (on SiC) is examined as a function of time. We show that hydrogen, in the form of CH, is present after the Hummers process, and that hydrogen favors the reduction of epoxide groups and the formation of water molecules. Importantly, this transformation can take place at room temperature, albeit slowly (∼ one month). Finally, the chemical interaction (e.g. bonding) between GO layers in multilayer samples is examined with diffraction (XRD) methods, spectroscopic (IR, XPS, Raman) techniques, imaging (APF) and first principles modeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOxide-Based Materials and Devices V
ISBN (Print)9780819499004
StatePublished - 2014
Event5th Annual Oxide Based Materials and Devices Conference - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 2 2014Feb 5 2014

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


Other5th Annual Oxide Based Materials and Devices Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Chemical stability and evolution
  • First principles calculations
  • Graphene oxide
  • Infrared spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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