Chemically Gradient Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework Crystal Film

Abdul Khayum Mohammed, Jésus Raya, Ajmal Pandikassala, Matthew A. Addicoat, Safa Gaber, Mohamed Aslam, Liaqat Ali, Sreekumar Kurungot, Dinesh Shetty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) are ordered supramolecular solid structures, however, nothing much explored as centimetre-scale self-standing films. The fabrication of such crystals comprising self-supported films is challenging due to the limited flexibility and interaction of the crystals, and therefore studies on two-dimensional macrostructures of HOFs are limited to external supports. Herein, we introduce a novel chemical gradient strategy to fabricate a crystal-deposited HOF film on an in situ-formed covalent organic polymer film (Tam-Bdca-CGHOF). The fabricated film showed versatility in chemical bonding along its thickness from covalent to hydrogen-bonded network. The kinetic-controlled Tam-Bdca-CGHOF showed enhanced proton conductivity (8.3×10−5 S cm−1) compared to its rapid kinetic analogue, Tam-Bdca-COP (2.1×10−5 S cm−1), which signifies the advantage of bonding-engineering in the same system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere202304313
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number29
StatePublished - Jul 17 2023


  • Chemical Gradience
  • Crystal Films
  • Free-Standing Films
  • Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework
  • Interfacial Chemistry
  • Proton Conductivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry


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