Cigarette-by-Cigarette Satisfaction During Ad Libitum Smoking

Saul Shiffman, Thomas R. Kirchner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Smoking is thought to produce immediate reinforcement, and subjective satisfaction with smoking is thought to influence subsequent smoking. The authors used ecological momentary assessment (A. A. Stone & S. Shiffman, 1994) to assess cigarette-by-cigarette smoking satisfaction in 394 heavy smokers who subsequently attempted to quit. Across 14,882 cigarettes rated, satisfaction averaged 7.06 (0-10 scale), but with considerable variation across cigarettes and individuals. Women and African American smokers reported higher satisfaction. More satisfied smokers were more likely to lapse after quitting (HR = 1.1, p < .03), whereas less satisfied smokers derived greater benefit from patch treatment to help them achieve abstinence (HR = 1.23, p < .001). Cigarettes smoked in positive moods were more satisfying, correcting for mood at the time of rating. The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)348-359
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of abnormal psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2009


  • affect
  • craving
  • reinforcement
  • satisfaction
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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