Clinical evidence suggests that some patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience a variety of complications associated with significant morbidity, especially in severe cases during the initial spread of the pandemic. To support early interventions, we propose a machine learning system that predicts the risk of developing multiple complications. We processed data collected from 3,352 patient encounters admitted to 18 facilities between April 1 and April 30, 2020, in Abu Dhabi (AD), United Arab Emirates. Using data collected during the first 24 h of admission, we trained machine learning models to predict the risk of developing any of three complications after 24 h of admission. The complications include Secondary Bacterial Infection (SBI), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The hospitals were grouped based on geographical proximity to assess the proposed system's learning generalizability, AD Middle region and AD Western & Eastern regions, A and B, respectively. The overall system includes a data filtering criterion, hyperparameter tuning, and model selection. In test set A, consisting of 587 patient encounters (mean age: 45.5), the system achieved a good area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for the prediction of SBI (0.902 AUROC), AKI (0.906 AUROC), and ARDS (0.854 AUROC). Similarly, in test set B, consisting of 225 patient encounters (mean age: 42.7), the system performed well for the prediction of SBI (0.859 AUROC), AKI (0.891 AUROC), and ARDS (0.827 AUROC). The performance results and feature importance analysis highlight the system's generalizability and interpretability. The findings illustrate how machine learning models can achieve a strong performance even when using a limited set of routine input variables. Since our proposed system is data-driven, we believe it can be easily repurposed for different outcomes considering the changes in COVID-19 variants over time.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Health Informatics
- Computer Science Applications
- Artificial Intelligence