Closed-Loop Tracking and Regulation of Emotional Valence State From Facial Electromyogram Measurements

Luciano R. F. Branco, Arian Ehteshami, Hamid Fekri Azgomi, Rose T. Faghih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Affective studies provide essential insights to address emotion recognition and tracking. In traditional open-loop structures, a lack of knowledge about the internal emotional state makes the system incapable of adjusting stimuli parameters and automatically responding to changes in the brain. To address this issue, we propose to use facial electromyogram measurements as biomarkers to infer the internal hidden brain state as feedback to close the loop. In this research, we develop a systematic way to track and control emotional valence, which codes emotions as being pleasant or obstructive. Hence, we conduct a simulation study by modeling and tracking the subject's emotional valence dynamics using state-space approaches. We employ Bayesian filtering to estimate the person-specific model parameters along with the hidden valence state, using continuous and binary features extracted from experimental electromyogram measurements. Moreover, we utilize a mixed-filter estimator to infer the secluded brain state in a real-time simulation environment. We close the loop with a fuzzy logic controller in two categories of regulation: inhibition and excitation. By designing a control action, we aim to automatically reflect any required adjustments within the simulation and reach the desired emotional state levels. Final results demonstrate that, by making use of physiological data, the proposed controller could effectively regulate the estimated valence state. Ultimately, we envision future outcomes of this research to support alternative forms of self-therapy by using wearable machine interface architectures capable of mitigating periods of pervasive emotions and maintaining daily well-being and welfare.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number747735
JournalFrontiers in Computational Neuroscience
StatePublished - Mar 25 2022


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