Communicative Outcomes of Stereotype-Based Expectancies: An Observational Study of Cross-Cultural Dyads

Valerie Manusov, Radha Hegde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To investigate the behavioral manifestations of stereotype-based expectancies, American students (N = 46) talked with confederates from India. The tapes of the interactions were coded for communication behaviors that were likely to differentiate people who entered interactions with pre-existing, neutral conceptions of the Indian culture from those who began the interaction with little knowledge or beliefs about India. Evaluations of the confederate were also assessed. It was found that people with a specific schema judged the confederate to be more attractive, were more satisfied with the interaction, and differed in their use of language. Specifically, people with pre-existing stereotypes used less open feedback, fewer summaries, brought up more content areas, asked fewer questions in each area, and used more verbal strategies showing their own depth of knowledge and a U.S. bias. They were also more likely to ask about the confederate’s education and less likely to talk about Indian dress, marriage, and recreational activities. Nonverbal behaviors did not differentiate between the two groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-354
Number of pages17
JournalCommunication Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 1993


  • Cross-cultural
  • Dyads
  • Expectancies
  • India
  • Nonverbal behaviors
  • Verbal behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication


Dive into the research topics of 'Communicative Outcomes of Stereotype-Based Expectancies: An Observational Study of Cross-Cultural Dyads'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this