Choline oxidase catalyzes oxidation of choline into glycine betaine through a two-step reaction pathway employing flavin as the cofactor. On the light of kinetic studies, it is proposed that a hydride ion is transferred from α-carbon of choline/hydrated-betaine aldehyde to the N5 position of flavin in the rate-determining step, which is preceded by deprotonation of hydroxyl group of choline/hydrated-betaine aldehyde to one of the possible basic side chains. Using the crystal structure of glycine betaine-choline oxidase complex, we formulated two computational systems to study the hydride-transfer mechanism including main active-site amino acid side chains, flavin cofactor, and choline as a model system. The first system used pure density functional theory calculations, whereas the second approach used a hybrid ONIOM approach consisting of density functional and molecular mechanics calculations. We were able to formulate in silico model active sites to study the hydride-transfer steps by utilizing noncovalent chemical interactions between choline/betaine aldehyde and active-site amino acid chains using an atomistic approach. We evaluated and compared the geometries and energetics of hydride-transfer process using two different systems. We highlighted chemical interactions and studied the effect of protonation state of an active-site histidine base on the energetics of transfer. Furthermore, we evaluated energetics of the second hydride-transfer process as well as hydration of betaine aldehyde.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)