Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: A factorial screening experiment

Tanya R. Schlam, Michael C. Fiore, Stevens S. Smith, David Fraser, Daniel M. Bolt, Linda M. Collins, Robin Mermelstein, Megan E. Piper, Jessica W. Cook, Douglas E. Jorenby, Wei Yin Loh, Timothy B. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To identify promising intervention components that help smokers attain and maintain abstinence during a quit attempt. Design: A 2×2×2×2×2 randomized factorial experiment. Setting: Eleven primary care clinics in Wisconsin, USA. Participants: A total of 544 smokers (59% women, 86% white) recruited during primary care visits and motivated to quit. Interventions: Five intervention components designed to help smokers attain and maintain abstinence: (1) extended medication (26 versus 8 weeks of nicotine patch+nicotine gum); (2) maintenance (phone) counseling versus none (3) medication adherence counseling versus none (4) automated (medication) adherence calls versus none and (5) electronic medication monitoring with feedback and counseling versus electronic medication monitoring alone. Measurements: The primary outcome was 7-day self-reported point-prevalence abstinence 1 year after the target quit day. Findings: Only extended medication produced a main effect. Twenty-six versus 8 weeks of medication improved point-prevalence abstinence rates (43 versus 34% at 6 months; 34 versus 27% at 1 year; P =0.01 for both). There were four interaction effects at 1 year, showing that an intervention component's effectiveness depended upon the components with which it was combined. Conclusions: Twenty-six weeks of nicotine patch+nicotine gum (versus 8 weeks) and maintenance counseling provided by phone are promising intervention components for the cessation and maintenance phases of smoking treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)142-155
Number of pages14
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Chronic care smoking treatment
  • Comparative effectiveness
  • Electronic medication monitoring
  • Factorial experiment
  • Medication adherence
  • Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST)
  • Nicotine replacement therapy
  • Phase-Based Model of smoking treatment
  • Primary care
  • Relapse prevention
  • Smoking cessation
  • Tobacco dependence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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