Comparison of Upper Extremity Function and Daily Use in Individuals with and without Post Stroke Depression

Samar Assadi Khalil, Grace J. Kim, Debbie Rand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a frequent psychiatric complication, however very few studies have investigated its relation to the affected upper extremity (UE) post-stroke. Objective. To compare the affected UE in terms of motor impairment, functional ability, and daily-use in individuals with and without PSD during the first 6 months post-stroke. Methods: This study analyzed data from a previous cohort; participants were assessed at rehabilitation admission (T1), 6 weeks (T2), and 6 months (T3) post-stroke. At each time point we compared between participants with and without PSD (Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥ 5). The Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment assessed motor impairment, Action Research Arm Test assessed functional ability, and the Rating of Everyday Arm-Use in the Community and Home assessed daily-use. Independence in daily activities and cognition were also assessed. Results: A total of 116 participants were recruited, 38% had PSD at T1. No significant differences were found between groups at T1 and T2. However, significant differences (z = −5.23 to −2.66, p <.01) were found between groups for all UE measures at T3; participants with PSD had lower motor and functional ability and less daily hand-use than participants without PSD. At T3 participants with PSD were also less independent in daily-living. Conclusions: PSD is associated with greater UE motor, functional, and daily-use disability at 6 months post-stroke. Our findings underscore the negative impact of PSD on UE during the crucial transition period when individuals return home and integrate back into the community. Further research is needed to delineate the effect of change in PSD status on UE outcomes post stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-108
Number of pages10
JournalNeurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • daily use
  • functional ability
  • post stroke depression
  • rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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