Condom-Related Stigma Scale among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: Development and Psychometric Tests

Yan Shen, Ci Zhang, Lloyd A. Goldsamt, Wenwen Peng, Run Wang, Xianhong Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Condom-related stigma is a frequently mentioned barrier to consistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). Based on the concept and operational definition of condom-related stigma recently defined by our team, we developed the 20-item condom-related stigma scale (CRSS) and examined its psychometric properties among 433 MSM in China, following DeVellis’s scale development guidelines. The content validity, convergent validity, empirical validity, factorial validity, scale score reliability, split-half reliability, and test–retest reliability for the CRSS were all assessed. The scale consists of four domains: perceived distrust, perceived potential HIV/STI risk, perceived embarrassment, and perceived violation of the traditional understanding of sexual intercourse. The CRSS has good validity (the scale-level content validity index was 0.99; the empirical validity was greater than 0.70) and high reliability (the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient overall was 0.926; the split-half reliability overall was 0.795; the test–retest reliability overall was 0.950). This scale is recommended for assessing the level of condom-related stigma among Chinese MSM, which can serve as an evaluating indicator for safer-sex interventions to prevent HIV infection among the MSM population in a Chinese cultural context.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4779
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • condom-related stigma
  • men who have sex with men
  • psychometric test
  • scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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