Confidence regions for INDSCAL using the jackknife and bootstrap techniques

Sharon L. Weinberg, J. Douglas Carroll, Harvey S. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bootstrap and jackknife techniques are used to estimate ellipsoidal confidence regions of group stimulus points derived from INDSCAL. The validity of these estimates is assessed through Monte Carlo analysis. Asymptotic estimates of confidence regions based on a MULTISCALE solution are also evaluated. Our findings suggest that the bootstrap and jackknife techniques may be used to provide statements regarding the accuracy of the relative locations of points in space. Our findings also suggest that MULTISCALE asymptotic estimates of confidence regions based on small samples provide an optimistic view of the actual statistical reliability of the solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)475-491
Number of pages17
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1984


  • Individual differences
  • maximum likelihood
  • multidimensional scaling
  • pseudovalues
  • resampling schemes
  • stability
  • standard errors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology
  • Applied Mathematics


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