The image of a material's surface varies not only with viewing and illumination conditions, but also with the material's surface properties, including its 3-D texture and specularity. Previous studies on the visual perception of surface material have typically focused on single material properties, ignoring possible interactions. In this study, we used a conjoint-measurement design to determine how observers represent perceived 3-D texture ("bumpiness") and specularity ("glossiness") and modeled how each of these two surface-material properties affects perception of the other. Observers made judgments of bumpiness and glossiness of surfaces that varied in both surface texture and specularity. We quantified how changes in each surface-material property affected judgments of the other and found that a simple additive model captured visual perception of texture and specularity and their interaction. Conjoint measurement is potentially a powerful tool for analyzing perception of surface material in realistic environments.
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