Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies

Wasim Maziak, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Mohammed Jawad, Rima Afifi, Rima Nakkash, Elie A. Akl, Kenneth D. Ward, Ramzi G. Salloum, Tracey E. Barnett, Brian A. Primack, Scott Sherman, Caroline O. Cobb, Erin L. Sutfin, Thomas Eissenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe’s alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-343
Number of pages6
JournalTobacco control
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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