Consistency is key: Understanding academic socialization among high-achieving Black boys

Trenel E. Francis, Diane L. Hughes, J. Alexander Watford, Niobe Way

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite the racial achievement gap, many Black adolescent boys excel in school. Academic socialization is one way that parents can contribute to these youths' success. However, only a few studies have examined the specific ways that Black parents support their sons' high achievement. To address this gap, we used a multi-wave, multi-informant, mixed-method design to examine the conversations, rules, and after school routines of 12 Black boys and their primary caregivers. First, using latent class growth curve analyses, boys were grouped into a high-achieving or low-achieving group according to their average grade in Math and English across 5 assessments from 6th to 11th grade. Then, using content analysis, we analyzed semi-structured interviews from these families for evidence of academic socialization. Drawing on the Stage Setting Framework, we found that parents of high-achieving Black boys engaged in four types of academic socialization practices that facilitated their children's academic success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101181
JournalJournal of Applied Developmental Psychology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Academic socialization
  • Black boys
  • Black parents
  • High-achieving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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