Contribution of tactile and kinesthetic perceptions to handwriting in Taiwanese children in first and second grade

Tzu Ying Yu, Jim Hinojosa, Tsu Hsin Howe, Gerald T. Voelbel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the contribution of tactile and kinesthetic perceptions to handwriting legibility and speed of 177 Taiwanese children in first and second grade. Five standardized instruments assessed tactile and kinesthetic perceptions using handwriting legibility and speed as outcome measures. Fine motor coordination, mental processing speed, age, and gender were measured and served as covariates. Pearson correlations and regression analyses examined the relationship between handwriting and tactile and kinesthetic perceptions. Handwriting speed and legibility both significantly correlated with tactile perception, kinesthetic perception, and covariates. Results from the regression analysis supported tactile and kinesthetic perceptions as being significant predictors of both handwriting speed (F (6,170) = 25.87, p < .001, R 2 = .477) and legibility (F (6,170)= 11.043, p < .001, R 2 = .280). Tactile perception contributed more to handwriting speed and legibility than kinesthetic perception. Tactile and kinesthetic perception should be assessed when evaluating handwriting. When children have difficulty writing quickly or legibly, professionals should assess children's tactile and kinesthetic abilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-94
Number of pages8
JournalOTJR Occupation, Participation and Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2012


  • Child development
  • Proprioception
  • Psychomotor performance
  • handwriting skills
  • occupational therapy
  • handwriting legibility
  • handwriting speed
  • fine motor coordination
  • childhood education
  • fine motor skills

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Occupational Therapy


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