Convergence of HIV seroprevalence among injecting and non-injecting drug users in New York City

Don C. Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Theresa Perlis, Holly Hagan, Abu Abdul-Quader, Douglas D. Heckathorn, Courtney McKnight, Heidi Bramson, Chris Nemeth, Lucia V. Torian, Samuel R. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To compare HIV prevalence among injecting and non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in New York City. As HIV is efficiently transmitted through the sharing of drug-injecting equipment, HIV infection has historically been higher among injecting drug users. DESIGN: Two separate cross-sectional surveys, both with HIV counseling and testing and drug use and HIV risk behavior questionnaires. METHODS: Injecting and non-injecting heroin and cocaine users recruited at detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment from 2001-2004 (n = 2121) and recruited through respondent-driven sampling from a research storefront in 2004 (n = 448). RESULTS: In both studies, HIV prevalence was nearly identical among current injectors (injected in the last 6 months) and heroin and cocaine users who had never injected: 13% [95% confidence interval (CI), 12-15%] among current injectors and 12% (95% CI, 9-16%) among never-injectors in the drug treatment program study, and 15% (95% CI, 11-19%) among current injectors and 17% (95% CI, 12-21%) among never injectors in the respondent driven sampling storefront study. The 95% CIs overlapped in all gender and race/ethnicity subgroup comparisons of HIV prevalence in both studies. CONCLUSIONS: The very large HIV epidemic among drug users in New York City appears to be entering a new phase, in which sexual transmission is of increasing importance. Additional prevention programs are needed to address this transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-235
Number of pages5
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2007


  • HIV
  • Injecting drug users
  • New York City
  • Non-injecting drug uses
  • Seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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