Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers

Marjorie L. McCullough, Stephanie J. Weinstein, D. Michal Freedman, Kathy Helzlsouer, W. Dana Flanders, Karen Koenig, Laurence Kolonel, Francine Laden, Loic Le Marchand, Mark Purdue, Kirk Snyder, Victoria L. Stevens, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Jarmo Virtamo, Gong Yang, Kai Yu, Wei Zheng, Demetrius Albanes, Jason Ashby, Kimberly BertrandHui Cai, Yu Chen, Lisa Gallicchio, Edward Giovannucci, Eric J. Jacobs, Susan E. Hankinson, Patricia Hartge, Virginia Hartmuller, Chinonye Harvey, Richard B. Hayes, Ronald L. Horst, Xiao Ou Shu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured in a single laboratory were examined in 4,723 cancer-free men and women from 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers, which covers a worldwide geographic area. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined in relation to 25(OH)D using stepwise linear regression and polytomous logistic regression. The prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25 nmol/L ranged from 3% to 36% across cohorts, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L ranged from 29% to 82%. Seasonal differences in circulating 25(OH)D were most marked among whites from northern latitudes. Statistically significant positive correlates of 25(OH)D included male sex, summer blood draw, vigorous physical activity, vitamin D intake, fish intake, multivitamin use, and calcium supplement use. Significant inverse correlates were body mass index, winter and spring blood draw, history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, smoking, and black race/ethnicity. Correlates varied somewhat within season, race/ethnicity, and sex. These findings help identify persons at risk for low vitamin D status for both clinical and research purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-35
Number of pages15
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2010


  • Body mass index
  • Cohort studies
  • Diet
  • Dietary supplements
  • Ethnic groups
  • Exercise
  • Seasons
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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