In perovskite solar cells, doped organic semiconductors are often used as charge-extraction interlayers situated between the photoactive layer and the electrodes. The π-conjugated small molecule 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) is the most frequently used semiconductor in the hole-conducting layer1–6, and its electrical properties considerably affect the charge collection efficiencies of the solar cell7. To enhance the electrical conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD, lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) is typically used in a doping process, which is conventionally initiated by exposing spiro-OMeTAD:LiTFSI blend films to air and light for several hours. This process, in which oxygen acts as the p-type dopant8–11, is time-intensive and largely depends on ambient conditions, and thus hinders the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Here we report a fast and reproducible doping method that involves bubbling a spiro-OMeTAD:LiTFSI solution with CO2 under ultraviolet light. CO2 obtains electrons from photoexcited spiro-OMeTAD, rapidly promoting its p-type doping and resulting in the precipitation of carbonates. The CO2-treated interlayer exhibits approximately 100 times higher conductivity than a pristine film while realizing stable, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells without any post-treatments. We also show that this method can be used to dope π-conjugated polymers.
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