We propose a conceptual framework that couples energy modeling with occupancy characteristics and energy use data to achieve comprehensive building energy consumption analysis. Specifically, we aim to: (1) couple distinct and spatially distributed simulation models and synchronize their data exchange; and (2) demonstrate the coupled simulation through a hypothetical case example of a building. This framework has been developed based on the principles defined in the High-Level Architecture (HLA) that enables distributed computing. In other words, the HLA-compliant federation allows federates (e.g., models) to communicate with each other and exchange relevant information to achieve the global objective of analyzing and reducing the building's energy use. A case study of a typical commercial building illustrates how the federates coordinate data synchronization and run in a distributed fashion. This example tests feedback frequency to building occupants on the building's energy use and illustrates the potential application of the framework to study energy interventions in buildings.