COVID-19 pandemic disruption: a matter of building companies’ internal and external resilience

Ahmed Mohammed, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, Ali Diabat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper develops an integrated methodology aimed at diagnosing supply chain resilience in terms of (1) internal dynamic capabilities of an enterprise, and (2) resilience of its suppliers. In addition, unlike other research, it integrates the suppliers’ resilience evaluation into the order size allocation plan. Multi-attribute decision making (MADM) algorithms were employed to quantify the relative importance to evaluate the internal and external resilience of an enterprise. Furthermore, the MADM output was combined with a multi-objective programming model formulated to solve the order size problem considering economic and resilience objectives. The applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a dairy manufacturing enterprise that suffered from disruptions attributed to COVID-19. The results translate the enterprise’s non-viable manufacturing due to its poor external and internal resilience profiles. It is emphasized that if an enterprise fails to develop internal capabilities such as readiness and sensing, the enterprise could also fail in managing external resilience. A resilient supply chain requires a blend of internal and external resilience. This work represents the first quantitative attempt to provide a unified methodology for identifying and measuring internal and external resilience.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2716-2737
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2023


  • Supply chain resilience
  • dynamic capability
  • optimization
  • order size
  • supply chain risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'COVID-19 pandemic disruption: a matter of building companies’ internal and external resilience'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this