CRAC channels in dental enamel cells

M. Eckstein, R. S. Lacruz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Enamel mineralization relies on Ca 2+ availability provided by Ca 2+ release activated Ca 2+ (CRAC) channels. CRAC channels are modulated by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ sensor STIM1 which gates the pore subunit of the channel known as ORAI1, found the in plasma membrane, to enable sustained Ca 2+ influx. Mutations in the STIM1 and ORAI1 genes result in CRAC channelopathy, an ensemble of diseases including immunodeficiency, muscular hypotonia, ectodermal dysplasia with defects in sweat gland function and abnormal enamel mineralization similar to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). In some reports, the chief medical complain has been the patient's dental health, highlighting the direct and important link between CRAC channels and enamel. The reported enamel defects are apparent in both the deciduous and in permanent teeth and often require extensive dental treatment to provide the patient with a functional dentition. Among the dental phenotypes observed in the patients, discoloration, increased wear, hypoplasias (thinning of enamel) and chipping has been reported. These findings are not universal in all patients. Here we review the mutations in STIM1 and ORAI1 causing AI-like phenotype, and evaluate the enamel defects in CRAC channel deficient mice. We also provide a brief overview of the role of CRAC channels in other mineralizing systems such as dentine and bone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-20
Number of pages7
JournalCell Calcium
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • Amelogenesis imperfecta
  • CRAC channels
  • Enamel
  • Hypoplasia
  • Mutations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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