Crack cocaine use and other risk factors for tuberculin positivity in drug users

Andrea A. Howard, Robert S. Klein, Ellie E. Schoenbaum, Marc N. Gourevitch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two-step tuberculin testing and standardized interviews of 793 current and former drug users were performed to determine the risk factors for tuberculin positivity. The prevalence of tuberculin positivity was 25%. Factors independently associated with tuberculin positivity among participants seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) included crack cocaine use (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.5), employment as a home health aide (adjusted OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.1), birth in Puerto Rico (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.6), foreign birthplace (adjusted OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.6), African American race (adjusted OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.0), reported tuberculosis exposure (adjusted OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4), and older age (adjusted OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.7). Additional risk factors among HIV-infected participants included alcoholism (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.8) and high CD4+ lymphocyte count. Identification of and administration of appropriate chemoprophylaxis to drug users with these risk factors should be given high priority.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1183-1190
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Crack cocaine use and other risk factors for tuberculin positivity in drug users'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this