Crawling and walking infants see the world differently

Kari S. Kretch, John M. Franchak, Karen E. Adolph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


How does visual experience change over development? To investigate changes in visual input over the developmental transition from crawling to walking, thirty 13-month-olds crawled or walked down a straight path wearing a head-mounted eye tracker that recorded gaze direction and head-centered field of view. Thirteen additional infants wore a motion tracker that recorded head orientation. Compared to walkers, crawlers' field of view contained less walls and more floor. Walkers directed gaze straight ahead at caregivers, whereas crawlers looked down at the floor. Crawlers obtained visual information about targets at higher elevations-caregivers and toys-by craning their heads upward and sitting up to bring the room into view. Findings indicate that visual experiences are intimately tied to infants' posture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1503-1518
Number of pages16
JournalChild development
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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