The instantaneous and creep and shrinkage behaviour of composite steel-concrete sections subjected to axial load and biaxial bending is examined analytically using the age-adjusted effective modulus method and a stress relaxation procedure. Any cross-section that can be discretized in rectangular elements can be analysed using the approach described in this study. Material non-linearities (concrete cracking and crushing as well as steel yielding) are included in the formulation by empolying an interative numerical procedure. The analytical method was implemented in a computer program and case studies demonstrate that composite columns under complex loads experience a considerable redistribution of stresses and strains, causing the degree of cracking and the secondary load effects (P-delta) to increase.
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