Critical role of H 2 O 2 in mediating sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via facilitating ceramide generation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Par-4 cleavage

Anees Rahman, Siraj Pallichankandy, Faisal Thayyullathil, Sehamuddin Galadari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Natural products are a major source of potential anticancer agents, and in order to develop improved and more effective cancer treatments, there is an immense need in exploring and elucidating their mechanism of action. Sanguinarine (SNG), a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid, has been shown to induce cytotoxicity in various human cancers and suppresses various pro-tumorigenic processes such as invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. Lack of understanding the anticancer mechanism(s) of SNG has impeded the development of this molecule as a potential anticancer agent. Earlier, we have reported that SNG induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent ceramide (Cer) generation and Akt dephosphorylation, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that SNG has potent anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. Our data suggest that SNG induces Cer generation via inhibiting acid ceramidase and glucosylceramide synthase, two important enzymes involved in Cer metabolism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SNG induces ROS-depended extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) cleavage, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Overall, our findings provide molecular insight into the role of ROS signaling in the anticancer mechanism(s) of SNG. This may provide the basis for its use as a nontoxic and an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-544
Number of pages18
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume134
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2019

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Ceramide
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Prostate apoptosis response-4
  • Sanguinarine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

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