Cross-layer secure cyber-physical control system design for networked 3D printers

Zhiheng Xu, Quanyan Zhu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Due to the high costs of 3D-printing infrastructure, outsourcing the production to third parties specializing in 3D-printing process becomes necessary. The integration of a 3D-printing system with networked communications constitutes a cyber-physical system, bringing new security challenges. Adversaries can explore the vulnerabilities of networks to damage the physical parts of the system. In this paper, we explore the vulnerabilities of 3D-printing systems, and design a cross-layer approach for the system. At the physical layer, we use a Markov jump system to model the system and develop a robust control policy to deal with uncertainties. At the cyber-layer, we apply FlipIt game to model the contention between the defender and attacker for the control of the 3D-printing system. To connect these two layers, we develop a Stackelberg framework to capture the interactions between cyber-layer attacker and defender game and the physical-layer controller and disturbance game, and define a new equilibrium concept that captures interdependence of the zero-sum and FlipIt games. We present numerical examples to better understand the equilibria and design defense strategies for 3D printers as a tradeoff between security and robustness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2016 American Control Conference, ACC 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781467386821
StatePublished - Jul 28 2016
Event2016 American Control Conference, ACC 2016 - Boston, United States
Duration: Jul 6 2016Jul 8 2016

Publication series

NameProceedings of the American Control Conference
ISSN (Print)0743-1619


Other2016 American Control Conference, ACC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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