Crystal Engineering in Kindergarten

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Friederich Froebel, a nineteenth century educator trained as a crystallographer, invented kindergarten. Froebel's background in crystallography infused every aspect of his conception of kindergarten, especially the self-actuated learning devices or "gifts" that were the centerpiece of his curriculum. Froebel kindergartens spread rapidly throughout Europe, the United States, and Japan in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Crystal engineering was thus a primary occupation of millions of children in the first several kindergarten generations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-9
Number of pages7
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'Crystal Engineering in Kindergarten'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this