Cultural adaptation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form (SAQ-SF) in Poland

Iwona Malinowska-Lipien, Piotr Brzyski, Teresa Gabrys, Agnieszka Gniadek, Maria Kozka, Pawel Kawalec, Tomasz Brzostek, Allison Squires

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background It is essential to provide safe healthcare in complex, difficult, and quickly changing conditions. The quality of healthcare services directly influences the safety of both the patients and staff. Understanding healthcare staff attitudes toward safety in the healthcare delivery context is foundational for building a culture of safety. Aim of the work To adapt, via a structured translation methodology, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire- Short Form (SAQ-SF), which assesses how employees of the health care sector perceive the safety climate in their workplace, to the Polish context. Methods Using a content validation approach to structure the translation process, we tested and psychometrically analysed the translated SAQ-SF. The sample comprised 322 employees of a district hospital (second referral level, which ensures 24/7 emergency care services) in Poland. Results The reliability of the sub-scales of the Polish version of the SAQ-SF ranged from 0.66 to 0.95. The discriminatory power of particular SAQ items ranged between 0.02 and 0.90. For 6 out of the 8 scale dimensions, the questions with the highest factor loadings were those measuring the same dimensions of the safety climate, according to the original scale. Conclusions The Polish version of the SAQ-SF (SAQ-SF-PL) meets the criteria of psychometric and functional validation as well as demonstrates good reliability as a measure of patient safety culture in the Polish context. The SAQ-SF-PL is an instrument that enable a valid and reliable assessment of patient safety climate in the Polish healthcare facilities and identify opportunities for improvement. International comparisons will also become easier.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0246340
JournalPloS one
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cultural Competency
  • Culture
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health Personnel/psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data
  • Poland
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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