Culture-level dimensions of social axioms and their correlates across 41 cultures

Michael Harris Bond, K. Leung, A. Au, Kwok Kit Tong, Sharon Reimel De Carrasquel, Fumio Murakami, Susumu Yamaguchi, Günter Bierbrauer, Theodore M. Singelis, Markus Broer, Filip Boen, Sophie M. Lambert, Maria Cristina Ferreira, Kimberly A. Noels, Jay Van Bavel, Saba Safdar, Jianxin Zhang, Lina Chen, Iva Solcova, Iva StetovskaToomas Niit, Kaisa Kitri Niit, Helena Hurme, Mia Böling, Vijé Franchi, Guguli Magradze, Nino Javakhishvili, Klaus Boehnke, Edgar Klinger, Xu Huang, Marta Fulop, Mihaly Berkics, Penny Panagiotopoulou, Sujata Sriram, Nandita Chaudhary, Anjali Ghosh, Neharika Vohra, Dien Fakhri Iqbal, Jenny Kurman, Ram David Thein, Anna Laura Comunian, Kyung Ae Son, Ivars Austers, Charles Harb, Joseph O.T. Odusanya, Zainal A. Ahmed, Rosnah Ismail, Fons Van De Vijver, Colleen Ward, Andrew Mogaji, David Lackland Sam, Muhammad Jahan Zeb Khan, William E. Cabanillas, L. Sycip, Félix Neto, Rosa Cabecinhas, Paulo Xavier, Margareta Dinca, Nadezhda Lebedeva, Andrianna Viskochil, Oksana Ponomareva, Steven Michael Burgess, Luis Oceja, Silvia Campo, Kwang Kuo Hwang, June Bernadette D'Souza, Bilge Ataca, Adrian Furnham, J. Rees Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Leung and colleagues have revealed a five-dimensional structure of social axioms across individuals from five cultural groups. The present research was designed to reveal the culture level factor structure of social axioms and its correlates across 41 nations. An ecological factor analysis on the 60 items of the Social Axioms Survey extracted two factors: Dynamic Externality correlates with value measures tapping collectivism, hierarchy, and conservatism and with national indices indicative of lower social development. Societal Cynicism is less strongly and broadly correlated with previous values measures or other national indices and seems to define a novel cultural syndrome. Its national correlates suggest that it taps the cognitive component of a cultural constellation labeled maleficence, a cultural syndrome associated with a general mistrust of social systems and other people. Discussion focused on the meaning of these national level factors of beliefs and on their relationships with individual level factors of belief derived from the same data set.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)548-570
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Cultural dimensions
  • Dynamic externality
  • Social axioms
  • Societal cynicism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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