Cytokine therapy for craniosynostosis

Mark P. Mooney, Amr M. Moursi, Lynne A. Opperman, Michael I. Siegel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The birth prevalence of craniosynostosis (premature suture fusion) is 300-500 per 1,000,000 live births. Surgical management involves the release of the synostosed suture. In many cases, however, the suturectomy site rapidly reossifies, further restricts the growing brain and alters craniofacial growth. This resynostosis requires additional surgery, which increases patient morbidity and mortality. New findings in bone biology and molecular pathways involved with suture fusion, combined with novel tissue engineering techniques, may allow the design of targeted and complementary therapies to decrease complications inherent in high-risk surgical procedures. This paper selectively reviews recent advances in i) identifying genetic mutations and the aetiopathogenesis of a number of craniosynostotic conditions; ii) cranial suture biology and molecular biochemical pathways involved in suture fusion; and iii) the design, development and application of various vehicles and tissue engineered constructs to deliver cytokines and genes to cranial sutures. Such biologically based therapies may be used as surgical adjuncts to rescue fusing sutures or help manage postoperative resynostosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-299
Number of pages21
JournalExpert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004


  • Animal models
  • Bone
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Cytokines
  • Dura mater
  • Genes
  • Surgery
  • Sutures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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