Data hiding in binary text documents

Q. Mei, E. K. Wong, N. Memon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


With the proliferation of digital media such as digital images, digital audio, and digital video, robust digital watermarking and data hiding techniques are needed for copyright protection, copy control, annotation, and authentication. While many techniques have been proposed for digital color and grayscale images, not all of them can be directly applied to binary text images. The difficulty lies in the fact that changing pixel values in a binary document could introduce irregularities that are very visually noticeable. We propose a new method for data hiding in binary text documents by embedding data in the 8-connected boundary of a character. We have identified a fixed set of pairs of five-pixel long boundary patterns for embedding data. One of the patterns in a pair requires deletion of the center foreground pixel, whereas the other requires the addition of a foreground pixel. A unique property of the proposed method is that the two patterns in each pair are dual of each other -- changing the pixel value of one pattern at the center position would result in the other. This property allows easy detection of the embedded data without referring to the original document, and without using any special enforcing techniques for detecting embedded data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
EditorsP.W. Wong, E.J. Delp
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2001
EventSecurity and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 22 2001Jan 25 2001


OtherSecurity and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Authentication
  • Binary text documents
  • Data hiding
  • Watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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