Here, we report the successful design, construction, and characterization of a 770-kilobase synthetic yeast chromosome II (synII). Our study incorporates characterization at multiple levels - including phenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, chromosome segregation, and replication analysis - to provide a thorough and comprehensive analysis of a synthetic chromosome. Our Trans-Omics analyses reveal a modest but potentially relevant pervasive up-regulation of translational machinery observed in synII, mainly caused by the deletion of 13 transfer RNAs. By both complementation assays and SCRaMbLE (synthetic chromosome rearrangement and modification by loxP-mediated evolution), we targeted and debugged the origin of a growth defect at 37°C in glycerol medium, which is related to misregulation of the high-osmolarity glycerol response. Despite the subtle differences, the synII strain shows highly consistent biological processes comparable to the native strain.
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