Denoising click-evoked otoacoustic emission signals by optimal shrinkage

Tzu Chi Liu, Yi Wen Liu, Hau Tieng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are clinically used as an objective way to infer whether cochlear functions are normal. However, because the sound pressure level of CEOAEs is typically much lower than the background noise, it usually takes hundreds, if not thousands, of repetitions to estimate the signal with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we propose to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of CEOAE signals within limited measurement time by optimal shrinkage (OS) in two different settings: covariance-based optimal shrinkage (cOS) and singular value decomposition-based optimal shrinkage (sOS). By simulation, the cOS consistently enhanced the SNR by 1-2 dB from a baseline method that is based on calculating the median. In real data, however, the cOS cannot enhance the SNR over 1 dB. The sOS achieved a SNR enhancement of 2-3 dB in simulation and demonstrated capability to enhance the SNR in real recordings. In addition, the level of enhancement increases as the baseline SNR decreases. An appealing property of OS is that it produces an estimate of all single trials. This property makes it possible to investigate CEOAE dynamics across a longer period of time when the cochlear conditions are not strictly stationary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2659-2670
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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