Design factors for educationally effective animations and simulations

Jan L. Plass, Bruce D. Homer, Elizabeth O. Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This paper reviews research on learning from dynamic visual representations and offers principles for the design of animations and simulations that assure their educational effectiveness. In addition to established principles, new and revised design principle are presented that have been derived from recent research. Our review focuses on the visual design and interaction design of these visualizations and presents existing research as well as questions for future inquiry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-61
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Computing in Higher Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009


  • Animation
  • Cognition
  • Design
  • Learning
  • Science
  • Simulation
  • Visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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