Design Methods for Strengthening Masonry Buildings Using Textile-Reinforced Mortar

Leonidas Alexandros S. Kouris, Thanasis C. Triantafillou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This investigation defines the problem and proposes guidelines for seismically upgrading masonry buildings using textile-reinforced mortar (TRM). The TRM technique in the form of externally applied jackets is appropriate for protecting masonry structures because it can provide sufficient strength and deformation capacity while satisfying the compatibility, reversibility, and durability requirements. Theoretical models are developed based on analytical equations using the material properties of masonry and TRM. In-plane flexure and shear failure modes are treated separately for biaxial stress. The capacity against out-of-plane loads is estimated for the overturning, horizontal, and vertical flexural collapse mechanisms. The proposed design methods apply to the ultimate limit state design. The theoretical models are validated using experimental data and the models are found to be reliable and reasonably conservative. Results of this study will improve the understanding of the performance and mechanisms of TRM under seismic loading. Recommendations for structural design and a series of guidelines for designers are also provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04018070
JournalJournal of Composites for Construction
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019


  • Analytical models
  • In-plane design
  • Out-of-plane design
  • Seismic retrofitting
  • Textile-reinforced mortar (TRM)
  • Unreinforced masonry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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