Designing a closed-loop supply chain network for citrus fruits crates considering environmental and economic issues

Yi Liao, Mohammad Kaviyani-Charati, Mostafa Hajiaghaei-Keshteli, Ali Diabat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Most cities, notably major and agricultural ones, are faced with environmental and waste problems. Distribution and collection of agricultural crops can be challenging duties as world demand and production are substantially increased. Accordingly, resource depletion, environmental concern, and the importance of the circular economy have convinced this research group to focus on a Closed-Loop Supply Chain (CLSC) network design. In this study, a new mixed linear mathematical model for a CLSC was developed which minimizes the CLSC's total costs and which tackles and controls air pollution. Contrary to previous works about supply chain network design, we firstly consider citrus fruits’ crates in our model. To solve the model, two leading algorithms, Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing, are employed and a third recently successful method, Keshtel Algorithm, is utilized. Further, two hybridization algorithms stemmed from mentioned ones are applied. Finally, the results are assessed by different criteria and compared, and then the two best algorithms are chosen in this case. Consequently, in order to achieve the most effective result, a real case study of crates was conducted. The results obviously presented applicability and efficiency of the proposed model. Thus, the most suitable network for CLSC of citrus fruits’ crates was designed in which the costs and emissions were reduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-220
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Systems
StatePublished - Apr 2020


  • Citrus fruit crates
  • Closed-loop supply Chain
  • Environmental issues
  • Location-allocation problem
  • Metaheuristics
  • Reverse logistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Designing a closed-loop supply chain network for citrus fruits crates considering environmental and economic issues'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this